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The British SWIFT Training Rifle "Mark III" manufacturer's notes

SEE ALSO: AIM TEACHING DEVICES ~~ THE CUMMINGS DOT RIFLE ~~ SUB-TARGET DEVICES


The
Instructional Booklet
for
Mark III.
(Pattern Lee Enfield Mk. 4. No. I.).
Swift Training Rifle

By F. J. Minns & Z de L Bakanowski P.M.C.

THE SWIFT RIFLE CO. LTD.
67-68 ST. ALDATE'S,
OXFORD.
Telephone : Oxford 2003, 2039, 48908.
Telegrams: Swiftrain, Oxford.

ILLUSTRATIONS.
Page,
Drawing I. Rifle and stand ... ... ... 16
Drawing 2. Fore-end ... ... ... ... 17
Drawing 3. Butt ... ... ... ... ... 17
Drawing 4. Sight testing frame ... ... ... 17
Drawing 5. Firing positions ... ... ... 17

THE SWIFT.TRAINING RIFLE.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE.

THE SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE designed for indoor training, is a rifle and target combined. The rifle, whilst similar in outward appearance to the Service Rifle, has one big difference—instead of firing bullets it projects a pair of darting pins which pierce the target sheet and recoil immediately into the barrel of the rifle.
It follows, therefore, that the rifle must be kept at an unvarying distance from the target and for this reason the two are connected by a moveable metal yoke (Q) which is attached to the rifle by a hook under the stock, and to the sides of the Target Stands by screws. The target stand is mounted on wheels, thus permitting entirely free movement of the rifle during firing and the firer is in no way restricted or assisted in supporting the rifle. Thus training by this method is a sound replacement of training with live ammunition.

THE SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE is supplied with the following equipment:—

Case for Rifle.
Folding Target Stand with connecting Yoke.
Sight Control Frame (for testing precision of Rifle).
Paper Target sheets.
Container for Target sheets.
Instructional Booklet.
One screwdriver.
Sectional Drawing.

TRAINING RIFLE (Drawings I, 2 and 3).

THE SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE is the same in shape as the Service Rifle (except for the fore-end) and is the same in weight and balance.
The handling of the breech bolt is the same as in the Service Rifle.
The release of the trigger is the same as in the Service Rifle, the two pressures being clearly felt.
The training rifle might be likened to a crossbow in which the bow is substituted by a strong spring, the shot being made by the captive arrow C running forward inside the stock. After having pierced the paper target, this arrow instantly recoils.
The fore part of the arrow C is bent upwards into a swan-neck D ending in two pins, E and F, the pin E being when in its forward position on a line which is a prolongation of the line of sight.
One of these pins, E, the point of which is conical, and therefore pierces a round hole in the paper target, runs exactly on the sighting line of the rifle as the arrow moves forwards and backwards. A special device ensures that this pin does not obscure the aim; when the rifle is at full cock the pin is pulled back in such a way that the swan neck is behind and slightly below the level of a bearing roller; and as the arrow moves, the swan neck is lifted by this roller, thus bringing the round pin into the sighting line.
The sights are adjusted so that the sighting line runs through the exact centre of the body of the round pin. Thus the centre of the round hole pierced in the paper target by the pin, shows with absolute exactitude the point through which the sighting line passes at the moment of "firing".
At the moment of firing the pins E and F, being attached to the rifle and forming a rigid prolongation of it, dart forward, pierce the paper target deeply, and remain embedded in it for the fraction of a second before recoiling. Thus the slightest movement of the rifle while firing is instantly and irrefutably recorded on the target by the shape of the holes made in the paper, showing clearly all mistakes made by the firer, such as breathing, wobbling, jerking, etc.
This teaches the trainee to keep motionless at the moment of the release of the trigger and for the fraction of a second after, because, if he moves, or jerks the rifle, before the pins have sprung back out of the paper, the edges of the holes will be torn; and if he breathes while firing, the hole made by the pin E will be oval instead of completely round.
The auxiliary pin, F, set below and perpendicular with the centre of the main pin, E, has a flat spear head shaped point which tears a slit in the paper (thus making it impossible to mistake it for the round holes pierced by the pin E) and shows clearly if the rifle has been tilted.
The training rifle is so constructed that it will not cock if the breech bolt has not been fully pulled back when loading (i.e. cocking the rifle) and will not fire if the rifle has been incorrectly shouldered—that is, if the butt is not firmly pressed into the shoulder.
The butt spring X can, if needed, be put out of action by pressing it fully home, and holding it in this position by a removable plug, Y, fitted in the butt. (Drawing 3).
The Safety Catch, J, is fitted on the left side of the butt, and when applied prevents the bolt lever from being raised, thus practising the trainee to become automatic in applying the rules laid down in Fire Discipline Training for the handling of this important part of the breech mechanism.

FOLDING TARGET STAND.

The folding target stand consists of a stand, base, M, mounted on four small wheels.
Upright frame, 0, held erect by the support, N, and within which is fitted the sliding target frame, P, provided with two screws on which to hang the target sheets, and two wedges for holding it taut.
Connecting yoke, Q, for keeping the target at the correct distance from the fore-end of the training rifle; this yoke is passed through the hook, R, under the stock of the rifle and is attached to the target stand by two thumb screws, S, by which also the target frame, P, is raised or lowered to suit the position of the firer.

Instructions for erecting the stand.

The target stand will reach you folded, in its position for carrying.
To erect, slacken off screw heads, S, and slide screen frame, P, with yoke, Q, attached upwards until the yoke clears the rifle rest, T, in front support.
Lift upright frame, 0, until the back support frame rail, N, is clear of the recesses in base M. Lift back support N, over top of upright frame and engage the rail in spring clips at rear of base, M.
To position target frame for target fixing, slacken both screws, S, and move sliding frame until a central position in upright frame is obtained. Secure in this position by tightening screw heads.
To fold the target stand, slacken off screw heads, S, and move sliding frame up to top of upright frame, tighten up screws to secure. Disengage back support rail, N, from spring clip and carry right over upright frame, 0, at the same time allow the upright frame supported by left hand to fall slowly backwards until the back support rail engages in the recesses in base, M.
Finally slacken screws, S, and move sliding frame until wedge enters recess in base rails. Secure by tightening screws, S.

To insert target sheet in stand.

At the top and bottom of the sliding target frame P are two wooden wedges fitted with spring clips, which fit into grooves in the frame.
Remove these, hang the paper target exactly as described in instructions I to 4 as printed on every target sheet.
It is important that the target sheet should be level and correctly placed on the frame, otherwise the trainee might fire into the wood of the frame and damage the pins of the rifle.

Attaching rifle to target stand.

Attach rifle to target stand by hooking it on to the yoke, Q, by means of the hook R under the stock of the rifle, at the right hand front bend where there is a notch on the yoke. Then slide it along to the desired position. The rifle is then ready for use. (See drawing 1).-
The method of using the target stand for the various firing positions is shown in drawing 5.

PAPER TARGETS.

There are four designs of paper targets, the Bullseye or Classification (Target I), the Advanced (Target 2), the Invasion (Target 3) and the Landscape (Target 4).
Target I represents a standard 4 ft. application target suitably reduced.
The drawings on Target 2 (Advanced) represent sections of No Man's Land ' as seen during a fight.
Target No. 3 represents a landing on an aerodrome with representative figures from 20 yards to 300 yards.
Target No. 4 (Landscape) is drawn in such a way as to enable the following lessons to be taught:—I, military vocabulary ; 2, examination of ground ; 3, indication and recognition of targets ; 4, fire control orders of various types.
The targets are so reduced as to be seen by the marksman in exactly the size that they would be seen on open-air shooting ranges.
The numbers on the drawing represent the distance from the marksman in yards.
The backlight on the training rifle being in exactly the same place as on the Service Rifle, the marksman's eye is compelled to adapt itself to the same degree.
The position of the foresight, being nearer to the butt than on the Service Rifle, is so calculated that any error in the accuracy of the aim makes the impact point (i.e. the centre of the round hole made by the pin) deviate to the same extent and in the same direction as it would on an open-air range. For instance, if the marksman aims incorrectly, with too much foresight, the head peeping out of a trench will be hit on the top of the helmet or the shot will even pass over it, according to the extent of the error.
As the size of the hole made by the round pin is disproportionate to the greatly reduced size of the figures on the target, there is a clearly marked dotted line round each of the figures ; if the hole is entirely within this dotted line, then the target can be considered as hit. If however, even the smallest part of the hole's edge is outside the dotted line, then the target has been missed.
As bullets hitting the top and sides of a helmet are deflected, the upper part of the dotted line is accordingly narrowed.

The paper targets must always be stretched taut, otherwise the recording of hits and evidence of errors will not be as distinct as required.

ADJUSTMENTS.

There are practically no parts of the training rifle's mechanism that can get out of order ; but as damp, rust, careless use, as well as accident, can impair its precision, means are provided for quick and correct adjustment.
To adjust for accuracy a Sight Control Frame is provided and the method of adjustment is described under this heading.

SIGHT CONTROL FRAME.

Before each lesson or practice, the instructor should test the precision of aim of the rifle. For this purpose the sight control frame is provided.
Method of Use. Fit the sight control frame to the training rifle by means of the screw U (Drawing 4) and glue a strip of paper tightly across it, or clip it on with ordinary 24 in. letter clips.
Let the glue dry then cock rifle, fire and re-cock to bring the arrows below the line of sight, shoulder it and see if the tip of the foresight is exactly in the centre of the round hole made by pin E.
If it is out of alignment adjust by means of the grub screws K and L (Drawing 2) which are on both sides of the fore end, always releasing one side before tightening the other thereby moving the arrows gutter to left or right to obtain lateral accuracy. It is essential that sufficient play should be allowed to enable the arrows rod to move freely.
If the pin makes a hole which is either above or below the sighting line, adjustment is obtained by means of screw H underneath the fore end. Care must be taken not to tighten screw H too much or the arrows rod will become jammed against the guide bolt whose function it is to limit upward movement.

CARE AND CLEANING OF THE SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE.

Before use.

I. Remove oil from external parts with dry rag and examine.
2. Oil the bolt action slightly.
3. Test for precision withsight control frame. After use.
4. Remove dust and perspiration with dry rag, examine and slightly oil all external parts, reverse the rifle, and allow oil to drip inside trigger, on the sear, cocking piece, butt rod, etc.

General Notes.

It cannot be too strongly stressed that the useful life of the "rifle depends upon the care with which it is used and stored. At the close of the training period the rifle should be returned to its case, which should only be stored in a cool dry' place, i.e., not on a concrete floor (or a similar damp place), or near a heating stove. Great care in storing is necessary to prevent the hardwood stock twisting as a result of damp. It will be appreciated that if the fore-end of the rifle twists, adjustment of the needles becomes difficult, or in bad cases would render the rifle useless.
Never leave the rifle in a " cocked " position or attached to the target yoke.

TRAINING.

GENERAL.

The primary object of the SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE is to facilitate and speed up rifle training and enable men to master the arts of marksmanship as applied to Service shooting without expenditure of ammunition.
The following Training sequence is set out in detail to provide a really useful reference for Instructors, and will, it is hoped, help all units issued with the rifle to prepare their programmes in such a way that no detail is overlooked in the making of the Service shot.
It is unnecessary for either Instructors or Trainees to have any knowledge of the mechanism of the rifle but it may be said briefly that every time the trigger is released two captive needles dart forward and provide irrefutable evidence on the target sheet as to the fault or faults. (if any) of the firer.
The rifle is operated by three springs, namely, the butt spring, the main spring and the recoil spring.
The function of the butt spring is to ensure correct holding with the left hand, i.e. the rifle must be pressed back into the right shoulder sufficient to take up normal recoil when a round of ball is fired, or otherwise the trigger
cannot be released.

The main spring is responsible generally for the forward movement of all working parts.
During this forward movement the recoil spring becomes compressed and when the arrows have registered on the target they are drawn back into the rifle and positioned for the next forward movement.
Another important characteristic of the rifle is that unless the bolt is drawn back to its limit, thus ensuring clean ejection and positioning of the new round for feeding, the action will not cock. From this it will be seen that men practised in the use of the rifle become automatic in performing the correct loading actions.
In firing the Trainee holds, aims and releases the trigger in exactly the same way as with the Service Rifle. The size, shape and position of the holes made by the arrows indicate instantly the faults of the firer. An analysis of faults is set out below.
Indication on Target. Cause of Fault. Correction.
Scattered group, i.e., Dwelling on aim. Rest each time move
all shots not through ment of rifle is seen.
one hole.
The hole made by the Breathing whilst Catch the breath as
conical arrow is oval firing. soon as the aim is
in shape instead of correct.
round.
Arrow impressions Movement immedia- Remain motionless
on the target are torn tely after firing, i.e., for a second after or distorted. not following through release of trigger.
High or low shot. Too much or too Show a diagram of
little foresight. correct sight.
Spear-shaped slit on Sights inclined. Point out that this
the target out of fault is due to care
perpendicular from lessness.
the centre of the hole made by the conical arrow.
Shot holes consistent- Faulty trigger release, Show correct release ly to right of aiming i.e., snatching instead by hand over hand mark of squeezing method.
Shot holes consistent- Flinching, i.e., antici- Warn the firer that
ly low left, about gating the shock of he is pushing the
eight o'clock. the charge. shoulder forward unconsciously at the moment of firing, explain that so long as correct holding is maintained with the left hand no recoil will be felt.
Shot holes consistent- Pressing backwards Once this fault has ly low left, about and to the left with been explained it is eight o'clock. the left hand. unlikely to recur.

COACH I NG.

Requirements of a Coach.

(i) Personality.
(ii) Knowledge.
(iii) Patience.
(iv) Ability to vary his handling according to
the type of man under instruction.

Men respond to instruction in a dozen ways; the good Coach looks at the individual and after a few questions determines just how to get the best results from him.
This will be the case generally when the firer is completely at ease, knows exactly what to do, and has had inculcated the resolve to perfect himself as a marksman shot.
Whilst the majority of men respond readily to quiet sympathetic coaching, it is always necessary to remember that all detail given must be correctly obeyed.
It is recommended that the following sequence of firing should be learned off by heart by all Trainees.

I. Adopt a comfortable firing position.
2. Shoulder the rifle and at the same time take the first pressure,
3. Close the disengaged eye and see that the sights are upright.
4. The moment a correct aim is caught, restrain the breathing and squeeze the trigger.
5. Follow through, i.e., remain motionless for a second after firing.
6. Truthfully declare the point of aim (they must train
themselves to take a mental picture of the relationship
between the sights and the point of aim as the trigger
is released).
7. Reload at the shoulder and resume loading position for four-five seconds (slow practices only).
The Coach, before the class is assembled, should always
(a) see that necessary kit is at hand, target is taut and level, and that spare targets are available.
(b) carry out the Accuracy Test.
(c) arrange suitable firing positions, and seating accommodation for waiting men.
With the class assembled—
(a) Briefly explain the practice to be fired and its object.
(b) Number men off and order first four to report to the prepared firing position. The remaining men are ordered to carry out mutual instruction (under supervision if possible) if not, as Instructor and Pupil, until it is their turn to shoot, i.e. number five replaces number one at rifle, number six replaces number two, etc., etc., until all men have been practised.

GROUPING PRACTICE.

Object of practice.

To train the individual to become automatic in holding the rifle correctly, so that close grouping of shots becomes a characteristic of his shooting.

Target.

Representative 4 ft. class No. I bullseye. Wrist or forearm may be rested.

Preliminary.

Explain object, order man to make himself comfortable
then allow him to take two or three practice shots
" into the white " to accustom him to position,
hold, sights and trigger release.
The Instructor should look for positional faults whilst the man is firing and make any necessary correction before the practice commences.

Conduct of Practice.

Order, Grouping Practice — Target Number — Group Number (see that the target indicated is at a cn-venient position for the firer). Five rounds—Fire.
The Coach watches the firer for faults and at the same time counts the number of seconds taken to fire each shot and makes a note of the firer's declaration for comparison on the target later. He should not speak to the firer until the practice is completed.

Discussion and Criticism.

Now allow the man to examine the target and bring out by question and answer method reasons for poor grouping.

Repetition.

Allow the man to practice until he has no " remaining error," (i.e. all shot through one hole equals four inch group at 100 yards) and consistently places his shots through the exact point of aim.
Repeat practice firing from the left shoulder.

APPLICATI ON.

Object. To apply the knowledge gained in Grouping and practice the man in overcoming known errors in the rifle, by alteration of his point of aim as necessary.

Target. As for Grouping.

Preliminaries. Throw the rifle out of correct sighting alignment slightly by means of the adjusting screw (note amount and direction of error) and explain that as no two rifles shoot exactly alike, and as peculiar conditions in time of war do not always allow that rifles should be correctly zeroed for the individual firer, it is necessary for him to be able to determine any error in the rifle and change his point of aim until his sights are directed exactly the distance of the error in the opposite direction thus bringing his shots on to the centre of the target.

Further preliminaries as for grouping.

Conduct of Practice. Allow the man to fire five rounds at a target to enable him to determine the error in- the rifle, then indicate five new targets and order Application Practice—Targets number—Group number—Five rounds—Fire.
The Coach should call out the result of each shot, i.e., inner, five o'clock, etc., according to the position of the hole made by the conical arrow in the relation to the aiming mark.
Repetition. Bring out reason for bad shots by question and answer method, compare declarations with shot holes, check any tendency towards careless shooting, and practice until a satisfactory standard is reached.
Repeat practice firing from the left shoulder.

AIMING OFF FOR WIND (ADVANCED).

Object. Practice men in aiming off for wind using Service targets.

Target. No. 2 (Advanced).

Preliminaries. Explain that if you can feel the wind fresh on the side of your face it is necessary to aim off. Do not aim off for any wind at distances less than 200 yards.
From 200-400 yards with a fresh wind blowing aim off one
figure's width —over 400 yards two figures' width
(imagine another figure standing beside that which is
to be fired at).
Conduct of Practice. Remind men of tendency to lose elevation whilst aiming off and give them simple problems for varying strength of wind. Indicate a target and order—one round—fire.
Note. Measurements should be from edge of figures and not from the surrounding dotted lines.
Repetition. Practice until proficiency is obtained. Repeat practice firing from the left shoulder.

S NAPS H 00T1 NG.

Object. To make men proficient in engaging an enemy appearing for only a few seconds.

Target. No. 2 (Advanced).

Preliminaries. Explain that ability to come quickly to the aim position, fire, and reload at the shoulder, often enables a second shot to be fired at a disappearing enemy.
Conduct of Practice. The firer to be in a correct firing position, action cocked. Indicate a target and explain that on your command Fire, he will shoulder the rifle—align the sights and squeeze the trigger in the shortest possible space of time according to his capacity. Warn the firer that he must not sacrifice ACCURACY for SPEED.
Order—watch your front (safety catch forward), snap-shooting practice with a 6-sec. exposure, at your target, one round, fire.
Note. The Instructor counts the seconds to the end of the exposure and orders—stop ! It is advisable to allow men to have three or four practice shots without firing to accustom them to length of exposure.
Repetition. Practice until proficiency is obtained, reducing exposure to 4 seconds.
Repeat practice firing from the left shoulder. AIMING OFF FOR MOVEMENT.

ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT STILL IN PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT.

Object. To practice men in aiming off at Service targets up to 300 yards.

Preliminaries. Demonstrate the use of the " winder " and give the rules for aiming off, i.e.:
At men walking across the front aim off one width. At men running across the front aim off two widths.
At vehicles and horsemen moving across the front aim off one length.
Explain and demonstrate that when firing at a moving target the firer should aim the required distance in front and at the same time take the first pressure.
Swing the rifle with the target and take the second pressure, continue the swing and reload at the shoulder
Conduct of Practice. The Instructor should detail one man to wind the target and allow the firer a few practice shots to accustom him to the rate of movement, etc.
Then order—" as your targets appear—five rounds—fire."
Repetition. Bring out by question and answer method the probable reasons for misses.
Any tendency to halt the swing of the rifle until the loading action has been completed, should be checked.
Practice the man until correct actions as taught are carried out automatically.

TIMED.

Object. Practice men in adopting quickly a correct position and fire a series of well aimed shots in a definite time limit.

Target. Representative classification 4 ft. No. I bullseye.

Preliminaries. See that the SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE is set out in a suitable position with the rifle attached by the hook to the stand.
Conduct of Practice. With the firer standing at ease behind the rifle explain that on your command fire he will adopt the lying position, push the safety catch forward, go through the motion of loading five rounds from the pouch, rebuttoning the pouch, and then proceed to fire five rounds at the targets indicated. Time 60 seconds.
Order—" at your target in front, five rounds—fire." Order—" stop " after one minute has elapsed.
Note. It will frequently be found that men firing this practice for the first time sacrifice accuracy for speed, explain that the time allotted allows for five well aimed shots to be fired.
Repetition. Repeat until all targets shot at prove that
the man has become automatic in applying the rules of shooting when time does not permit him to think.

TIMED (GAS).

Object. To accustom men to fire whilst wearing Service Respirators.

Target. Representative classification 4 ft. No. I bullseye. Preliminaries. Order " Gas." Test fitting of Respirator.

Conduct of Practice. Explain that in this practice you wish to test his ability to engage a target and bring to bear on it the greatest volume of fire possible in the time allowed. Again it is important that he must remember that ACCURACY must not be sacrificed for SPEED.
Explain that he will be expected to fire five rounds at the target indicated in regulation time allowed.
Order " rapid practice at your target in front, five rounds—rapid, fire."
Note. Where targets show all five shots within a hole enlarged to twice the size of the conical arrow the standard of marksmanship will be considered satisfactory.
Repetition. Bring out reasons for bad shots by question and answer method and give further practice until a satisfactory standard is reached.

SHOOTING FROM EITHER SHOULDER.

So that every advantage may be obtained from any type of available cover met with on Service, men should be practised in firing from the opposite shoulder to the normal until they have gained confidence and proficiency whilst doing so.
,.It is, therefore, recommended that at the end of suitable lessons, right-handed men should fire the practice again from the left shoulder, and vice-versa.

SELF-CONTROL.

The mechanism of the SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE irrefutably recording the smallest errors and inaccuracies in handling the weapon, the men acquire and develop remarkable self-control and confidence which carries them successfully through contests and prize shooting. In actual fighting, this self-control is vital, because the firer must maintain his standard of accuracy or become a liability to his section.

DAILY EXERCISES.

The daily use of the SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE will have a tonic effect on the nerves, muscles, eyes and lungs, and therefore men should be encouraged to keep in " shooting trim " without cost of ammunition.

THE FINAL STAGES.

The SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE undoubtedly enables men to be trained as marksmen before they ever reach the open range. But to complete the training they should fire a few rounds to become accustomed to the noise of firing and the recoil of the rifle.

TRAINING RIFLE MATCHES AND COMPETITIONS.

TARGET NO. 2.

There is plenty of entertainment in indoor matches and competitions with the training rifle,, the scoring being based on the definition of the efficiency of the fire, i.e., the number of targets hit within the shortest time, with the smallest number of rounds fired.
The competitors shoot one after the other in allotted order. They agree between themselves as to the position for shooting, the targets to be hit, and the score of hits required (for instance—" three tommy-gunners' heads at 150 yards "). A referee is appointed to time the shots and count the number of rounds fired.
Every competitor starts in the agreed position, but with the rifle uncocked. At the command " fire " he cocks the rifle and begins to shoot, until the agreed number of selected targets is stated by the referee to have been hit. The referee then multiplies the number of shots including misses by the time (in seconds) taken, to arrive at the final score. The lowest score wins.
The decision of the referee regarding hits and missesi.e., whether the round hole is completely within the dotted line or not—is final.
In the case of a draw, or by special arrangement, a handicap of steadiness may be added, holes slightly torn or not completely round, though still well within the dotted line, adding half a round to the number of shots made by a competitor.
Such scoring is a real test of self-control and coolness, and is of great value as a preparatory exercise for actual firing.

APPLICATION OF FIRE (GENERAL).

The SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE provides a practical way for the training of personnel in the following subjects:—

1. The Military Vocabulary.
2. Locating of Service Targets.
3. Recognition of Targets. 4. Fire Control Orders.

The Landscape Targets show many features both natural and artificial as well as topographical and thus provide a ready means of teaching the Military Vocabulary.
The equipment is specially suitable for training men in indication and recognition of various types of targets.
All types of Fire Control orders can be practised without use of ammunition or wastage of time in preparing targets for use with Harmonised Sights.
The following detail indicates the lines on which lessons may be taught and will, it is hoped, be of assistance to all young Fire Unit Commanders.

THE MILITARY VOCABULARY. TARGET NO. 4.

Preliminaries. Explain that different dialects make it necessary that all objects of military importance should be described in a standard way, and the object of this lesson is to give them practice in identifying such objects and features as are likely to be met with in the field.
Conduct of Lesson. The Instructor, with the class facing him, stands on the left and in line with the target stand which should be mounted on the table at a convenient height.
With a long pencil he points to various features natural and artificial and describes them by their correct name.
He should then test their knowledge by detailing them to shoot in turn at objects indicated by him, example :

Order—" track, one round, fire.
pylon, „ „
" gable end,,,
" viaduct, „ „ f t
" fir tree, „
" poplar
tree, „ etc., etc.

Note. The Instructor should, when examining shot results, insist on the correct point of aim, i.e., lowest central portion of object except where otherwise ordered.
Repetition. Practice as necessary until all teatures have been named and recognised.

SEARCHING GROUND AND LOCATION OF TARGETS.

TARGET NO. 4.

Object. To practice the eye in locating Service targets by systematic searching of ground in area, and to provide an object lesson in concealment.
Preliminaries. Set out the SWIFT TRAINING- RIFLE EQUIPMENT fitted with No. 4 (Landscape) Target.
Paste figures of different sizes from No. 2 target singly, and in section formations on to each sector and distance of
• the landscape.
Divide the landscape in depth " foreground," " middle distance " and " background."
Explain that the eye should search the area named along successive imaginary lines from right to left and left to right, looking for any movement, change of colouring, or outline until all the ground has been covered:
Conduct of Practice. Indicate an area naming distance and order the firer to engage all enemy in that area.
Discussion and Criticism. Remind that a trained enemy seldom presents an obvious target and point out that the man who neglects to break up his silhouette (outline) or chose a suitable background is almost certain to become an early casualty.
If sufficient care has been taken to blend the figures into the background valuable results will be obtained from this lesson.
Repetition. As necessary.

RECOGNITION OF TARGETS.

TARGET NO. 4.

Object. To train men to recognise quickly features and objects indicated by a Fire Controller.
Preliminaries. Explain that in order to save time targets are described in the most DIRECT manner possible.
An obvious target (i.e., where there is only one of its kind) should be used for preliminary instruction. An example would be—No. 3 section—six hundred—gasometer—five rounds—fire.
Later men should be practised in recognising targets by DIRECTION either from an obvious target, or with reference to the Front, Slightly, Quarter, Half or Three-quarter right or left, for example, No. 2 section-300—Church—Slightly right, etc., etc.
Conduct of Practice. Practice each man by allowing him to shoot at targets indicated by both of the foregoing methods.
Discussion and Criticism. Insist that all targets are engaged with absolute accuracy.
Repetition. As necessary until proficiency is attained.

RECOGNITION USING AIDS.

Preliminaries. Set out the SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE fitted with No. 4 target (landscape).
Name the most prominent object in the centre of the target as a Reference Point, give the range, and explain that in close country, or where there are a number of features, etc., of the same kind, time is saved by indicating difficult targets from some unmistakable object.
Conduct of Practice. Give a complete normal fire order, indicating a difficult target by the Vertical Clock Ray method.
Discussion. If fire effect has not been obtained bring out cause by question and answer method.
Repetition. Practice in further aids, i.e., last target, widths, and finger method.

FIRE CONTROL ORDERS.

Object. To' practice the Fire Unit Commander in bringing fire to bear at the right target, in the right volume, and at the right time.
Preliminaries. Arrange SWIFT TRAINING RIFLE fitted with No. 4 target (landscape).
Remind that before fire is opened the Fire Controller should—
I. Consider the range—is it too far ?
2. Is the target sufficiently visible and vulnerable ?
3. Is it a " Gun or a " Rifle " target ?
4. Should " slow " or " rapid " be used ?
5. The width of the target. If it has little width—Concentrated, if it is wide—Distributed.
6. Can he change his position with safety so as to bring enfilade fire to bear on it ?
Generally, do not use ammunition when ATTACKING unless it is impossible to advance except by fire. Reserve your fire in DEFENCE until enemy are at close range, say 400.
Rapid fire should be used—
(a) to repulse an attack ;
(b) for covering fire;
(c) to obtain superiority of fire, i.e., before final assault;
(d) at fleeting targets.

Conduct of Practice. Exercise the class first in Normal Fire Orders as follows.

The Instructor sees that a firer (who may represent Gun or Rifle) is ready in position, and then privately indicates a suitable target to the person detailed as Fire Controller who will be expected to deliver his fire order in the same tone of voice, etc., etc., as he would if he were in the field.
Discussion and Criticism. If fire effect has not been obtained. Examine the order in the following sequence—
Was the order given in correct sequence? Was the order given as an order ?
Was the range correct ?
Was the target described in such a way as to be unmistakable to the firer ?
Was it necessary to use "Aids " ?
Was the kind and rate of ire suited to the target ?

COMMON FAULTS IN AIMING

(Illustrated)


The rifle shown below is to be found in the Pattern Room Collection. It is one of only two examples of this particular design of BSA trials rifles whose whereabouts are known; unless you have seen another elsewhere? Do you think you know what it is?

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